The Common Fisheries Policy states that an Ecosystem-Based Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM) needs to be implemented. This study provides a state-of-play of the implementation of EAFM in the North and Baltic Seas, Western Atlantic and Outermost Regions. At the core of this assessment, the study identified three types of “EAFM challenges” that need to be addressed in order to advance EAFM.