This study evaluates the costs and benefits on fisheries and aquaculture of three types of spatial protection measures: (i) Fish Stock Recovery Areas (FSRAs), (ii) Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), and areas designated as (iii) Other Effective area-based Conservation Measures (OECMs). The research assesses how far fisheries co-management approaches can potentially help to achieve the European Union targets. The study uses three case studies from France, Spain and Greece to collect data on the different types of spatial protection measures and assesses how the cost-benefit analysis framework can be applied for their evaluation.